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What Are the Best Gaming Laptops Under Rs.43,000?

HP Notebook 15-AC646tx (V5D74PA) Intel CoreTM i5-4210U Processor-8GB-1TB HDD-WIN 10-2GB AMD GRAPHIC CARDHP 15-AB125AX APU Quad Core A10 - (8 GB/1 TB HDD/Windows 10/2 GB Graphics) Notebook P6M13PA#ACJ Rs.41490 Price in India - Buy HP 15-AB125AX APU Quad Core A10 - (8 GB/1 TB HDD/Windows 10/2 GB Graphics) Notebook P6M13PA#ACJ Natural SIlver Online - HP : Flipkart.comLenovo G50-80 Intel Core i5 (5th Gen) - (8 GB/1 TB HDD/Windows 10/2 GB Graphics) Notebook 80E5038PIN Rs. 45990 Price in India - Buy Lenovo G50-80 Intel Core i5 (5th Gen) - (8 GB/1 TB HDD/Windows 10/2 GB Graphics) Notebook 80E5038PIN Black Online - Lenovo : Flipkart.comThese two laptops fits your budget.As for optimal settings,it will run GTA 5 at low & maybe medium with a few tweaks. However if you are looking for high or ultra settings, then your budget is too low for that kind of performance.

What Are the Best Gaming Laptops Under Rs.43,000? 1

1. Tire Maintenance Guide: 10 Simple Tips For Longer, Lasting Tires

Tires are a vital part of your vehicle. They are the only thing between you and the road. Stay safe, and save some money too, by ensuring your tires are maintained properly. The following simple tips are not only a great way to maximize the longevity of your tires, but to increase your fuel efficiency, driving performance and most importantly your overall road safety. Keep your tires properly inflated. Under or over-inflated tires may not accelerate, brake or steer properly. Check your tire pressure at least once a month when the tires are cold (before you head out for a drive). Tip: Not sure what your tire pressure should be? The vehicle information placard is a small sticker that lists the proper pressure for both your front and rear tires. Often it's located on the driver side front or back door. If you are unable to find it, refer to your owner's manual. Rotate your tires regularly to extend the life of them and improve performance. It's recommended you rotate your tires once every 10,000 to 12,000 km or 6 months. Get a wheel alignment every year, or 25,000 km to avoid uneven tread wear. Daily impacts such as potholes and railroad crossings, as well as more severe circumstances like a car accident, can knock your vehicle's tires out of alignment. Frequently inspect your tires. Once a month inspect your tires and be on the lookout for cracks or bulges, objects lodged in the tire, punctures and uneven tread wear. Change your tires according to the season. In Canada, it's recommended that you have both summer and winter tires. Both types of tires are designed differently to match the driving conditions. Using winter tires in the summer or vice versa can wear your tires faster than expected. Related Read: Top 10 Winter Tires (Plus Five More) Do not mix and match tires. While it may seem more cost effective to replace one or two tires at a time, having mismatched tires can lead to rapid and uneven tread wear, or even mechanical issues. Replace your tires when needed. Pay close attention to the tire tread for indication on when to replace your tires. Tip: Do the penny test. With the Queen's crown facing down, put a penny in the groove of your tire. If you can see the top of her crown, the tire needs replacing. Make sure your tires are balanced. Having unbalanced tires can lead to rapid and premature tire tread wear. You should have your tires balanced every time you change or rotate your tires, or buy new. Ensure punctured tires are repaired properly. Depending on the severity of the puncture or size of the foreign object lodged in your tire, it can be easily repaired. However, it needs to be repaired properly. Take it into the mechanic. Store spare tires the right way. Make sure tires are clean, free of gasoline, grease, or any type of substance that could deteriorate the rubber. If you are storing your tires indoors, make sure it's in a clean, cool and dark location away from direct sunlight or sources of heat. If you are storing them outdoors make sure the tires are raised off of the ground and use water proof covering with holes to prevent moisture build-up. Proper upkeep of your tires means not having to replace them as often, ultimately keeping you safer on the roads while saving you money as well. And, if saving money sounds like a good idea, why not compare car insurance rates while you are at it: on average, InsuranceHotline.com shoppers save up to $700 after shopping their car insurance rates.

2. What are some of the lightest bike frame materials?

Saving one OUNCE off each wheel is like saving one POUND off the frame as far as performance. Unless your bike frame is really bad (in which case your wheels and other parts probably are as well), forget the frame thing and concentrate on your wheels. AS MR implied, any material can be made into a light frame but an aluminum frame on a discount store bike will be far heavier than an aluminum frame on better quality bikes.

What Are the Best Gaming Laptops Under Rs.43,000? 2

3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of having a car with a turbo engine?

With the advent of unleaded fuels and catalytic converters in the 1970's, engine output suffered greatly, and folks were really unhappy with performance. I can clearly recall when 350 CID Chevy engines made only 175 HP, or 0.5 HP per cubic inch.There were some early efforts to make turbo charged engines (e. g. Porsche 930 turbos), but they suffered reliability problems, not to mention the "turbo lag" that others have mentioned.At the same time, governments issued Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) requirements that pushed auto manufacturers to meet certain fuel economy across their entire product line.Engineers (bless them!!) worked very hard to solve these problems, and today, there are many turbocharged engine offerings that offer great performance out of very small engines. These things can make 1. 5-2. 0 HP per cubic inch without affecting reliability. As other have said, these are far more efficient than engines of old.But there are some problems with these small turbo-charged engines, especially engines with direct injection. There is a phenomenon called Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI) that can occur under normal driving conditions which can severely damage an engine. Here's a link to a brief summary of the issue: Low-speed pre-ignition - WikipediaThere is some evidence that motor oil containing calcium organometallic additives may be a major contributor to LSPI, but that is not the only cause for LSPI. The industry is scrambling to change engine oil formulations to remove calcium-containing additives. As consumers, we've seen a delay to the scheduled release of next generation engine oil (API "SP"; ISLAC GF-6), while the industry develops test standards for LSPI performance. In the interim, some auto manufacturers have developed internal tests for LSPI (e.g. GM's "Dexos 1") in an attempt to reduce LSPI in their products. Also, we will see "SN" motor oil hit the market within the next couple of months, ostensibly to limit LSPI issues. [Note: LSPI is not an issue with non-turbocharged engines.]So, all of that said, turbo-charged engines are great, and they are here to stay. But if you're buying a new car a turbo-charged direct injection engine, I'd suggest you invest in an extended warranty until such time as the LSPI issue is solved.What are the advantages and disadvantages of having a car with a turbo engine?

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High Performance Mini PC for Students
Mini PCs are nowadays a hot product. It's good if you're not the one that is going to buy it. But what if I'm? Which would be better for me?Power Management Chapter 21: Thermoelectric generatorsA thermoelectric generator, TEG, is a solid-state device that converts heat directly into electrical energy through a phenomenon called the Seebeck effect. Thermoelectric generators consist of three major components: thermoelectric materials, thermoelectric modules, and thermoelectric systems that interface with the heat source. Thermoelectric materials generate power directly from heat by converting temperature differences into a dc voltage. To be good thermoelectric materials these materials must have both high electrical conductivity and low thermal conductivity. Having low thermal conductivity ensures that when one side is made hot, the other side stays cold, which helps to generate a large voltage while in a temperature gradient. The typical efficiency of TEGs is around 5% to 8%. Older devices used bimetallic junctions and were bulky. More recent devices use highly doped semiconductors made from bismuth telluride(Bi2Te3), lead telluride (PbTe), calcium manganese oxide (Ca2Mn3O8), or combinations thereof, depending on temperature. Maximizing the efficiency (or, conversely, the total power output) of requires trade-offs between total heat flow through the thermoelectric modules and maximizing the temperature gradient across them. The design of heat-exchanger technologies to accomplish this is one of the most important aspects of engineering of a thermoelectric generator. Three semiconductors are known to have both low thermal conductivity and high power factor: Low temperature materials (up to around 450K): alloys based on Bismuth (Bi) in combinations with Antimony (Sb), Tellurium (Te), or Selenium (Se). Intermediate temperature (up to 850K): such as materials based on alloys of Lead (Pb). Highest-temperatures material (up to 1300K): materials fabricated from silicon germanium (SiGe) alloys. Although these materials still remain the cornerstone for commercial and practical applications in thermoelectric power generation, significant advances have been made in synthesizing new materials and fabricating material structures with improved thermoelectric performance. Recent research has focused on improving the material's figure-of-merit (zT), and hence the conversion efficiency, by reducing the lattice thermal conductivity. Researchers are trying to develop new thermoelectric materials for power generation by improving the figure-of-merit zT. One example of these materials is the semiconductor compound -Zn Sb , which possesses an exceptionally low thermal conductivity and exhibits a maximum zT of 1.3 at a temperature of 670K. This material is also relatively inexpensive and stable up to this temperature in a vacuum, and can be a good alternative in the temperature range between materials based on Bi Te and PbTe. Besides improving the figure-of-merit, there is increasing focus to develop new materials by increasing the electrical power output, decreasing cost and developing environmentally friendly materials. For example, when the fuel cost is low or almost free, such as in waste-heat recovery, then the cost per watt is only determined by the power per unit area and the operating period. As a result, it has initiated a search for materials with high power output rather than conversion efficiency. For example, the rare earth compound YbAl3 has a low figure-of-merit, but it has a power output of at least double that of any other material, and can operate over the temperature range of a waste-heat source. Many challenges are confronted when designing a reliable TEG system that operates at high temperatures. Achieving high efficiency in the system requires extensive engineering design in order to balance between the heat flow through the modules and maximizing the temperature gradient across them. To do this, designing heat-exchanger technologies in the system is one of the most important aspects of TEG engineering. In addition, the system must minimize the thermal losses due to the interfaces between materials at several places. Another challenging constraint is avoiding large pressure drops between the heating and cooling sources. When selecting materials for thermoelectric generation, a number of other factors need to be considered. During operation, ideally the thermoelectric generator has a large temperature gradient across it. Thermal expansion will then introduce stress in the device, which may cause fracture of the thermoelectric legs, or separation from the coupling material. The mechanical properties of the materials must be considered and the coefficient of thermal expansion of the n- and p-type material must be matched reasonably well. Thermoelectric generators can be applied in a variety of applications. Frequently, thermoelectric generators are used for low-power remote applications or where bulkier but more efficient heat engines such as Stirling engines would not be possible. Unlike heat engines, the solid-state electrical components typically used to perform thermal to electric energy conversion have no moving parts. The thermal to electric energy conversion can be performed using components that require no maintenance, have inherently high reliability, and can be used to construct generators with long service-free lifetimes. This makes thermoelectric generators well suited for equipment with low to modest power needs in remote uninhabited or inaccessible locations such as mountaintops, the vacuum of space, or the deep ocean. Besides low efficiency and high cost, two general problems exist in such devices: high output resistance and adverse thermal characteristics. High output resistance. In order to get a significant output voltage, a very high Seebeck coefficient is needed (high V/C). A common approach is to place many thermo-elements in series, causing the effective output resistance of a generator to be very high (>10). Thus, power is only efficiently transferred to loads with high resistance; power is otherwise lost across the output resistance. This problem is solved in some commercial devices by putting more elements in parallel and fewer in series. Adverse thermal characteristics. Because low thermal conductivity is required for a good thermoelectric generator, this can severely dampen the heat dissipation of such a device (i.e., thermoelectric generators serve as poor heat sinks). They are only economical when a high temperature (>200 C) can be used and when only small amounts of power (a few watts) are needed. Most thermoelectric generator module manufacturing companies use many thermoelectric couples that are sandwiched between two pieces of non-electrically conductive materials. It is also necessary for this material to be thermally conductive to ensure a good heat transfer; usually two thin ceramic wafers are used to form what is called a "thermoelectric module." Each module can contain dozens of pairs of thermoelectric couples called thermoelectric generator modules, TEC modules, and sometimes Peltier or Seebeck modules, which simply denotes whether they are being used to generate electricity (Seebeck) or produce heat or cold (Peltier). Functionally there is no difference between the two. They both are capable of producing heat and cold or generating electricity, depending on whether heat is applied or an electrical current. There are differences in performance between various modules depending on what they were manufactured for. For example, if a module is being manufactured for use in a 12-volt dc automotive cooler, the thermoelectric couples will be of a thicker gauge and so will the wire connecting the modules to the 12-volt dc power source. In most cases, the module itself is quite large. This is simply because the module will be conducting a heavy load of current and will need to be able to handle the load. Although these type modules can be used to produce electricity, they are not well suited for the task because they have a high internal resistance (lowering output) and lower temperature solder that may melt if used for Seebeck purposes. This means the electrical connection may fail when the higher heat needed to produce significant amounts of electricity is applied to the module. GMZ-Energy's TG16-1.0 thermoelectric module is capable of producing twice the power of the company's first product, the TG8 (Fig. 21-1). The highly efficient TG16-1.0 directly converts waste heat into usable electricity and is well suited for extremely high-temperature environments, such as those in boilers and furnaces. By doubling the power density, GMZ's new module substantially increases performance while maintaining a minimal footprint. The TG16-1.0 will augment the TG8, enabling dramatic efficiency improvements and new functionalities in products requiring high power density. Now, with two product offerings, GMZ is capable of providing a solution to even more OEM partners around the world. GMZ Energy's proprietary platform technology enables low-cost manufacturing of bulk thermoelectric materials. The company's patented nano-structuring process reduces thermal conductivity while maintaining electrical conductivity, enhancing the performance ("figure of merit," zT) by 30% to 60% across multiple classes of thermoelectric materials, including bismuth telluride, lead telluride, skutterudites, silicon germanium, and half-Heusler materials. The company has recently applied its nano-structuring process to half-Heusler materials, yielding a unique combination of high performance, high strength and low cost. GMZ's proprietary method of bulk manufacturing TE materials of less than 1 micron in size is more cost-effective than known nanowire or thin-film manufacturing methods for temperatures of 550C to 650C on the hot side and 100C on the cold side. A demonstration of the TEG's ability to convert a vehicle's waste heat into electricity was performed for the Army's TARDEC (Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center) program. For that program, GMZ Energy successfully demonstrated a 1,000W TEG designed for diesel engine exhaust heat recapture. The company integrated five 200W TEGs into a single 1,000W diesel engine solution that directly converts exhaust waste heat into electrical energy, which increases fuel efficiency and lowers overall costs. The GMZ TEGs demonstrated continuous output power with no degradation in performance over the test period. To simulate vehicle performance, the unit was tested by connecting directly to the exhaust of a 15-liter V8 diesel engine inside an engine test cell. At approximately 80 liters (2.8 ft3), GMZ's TEG was less than one-third of the TARDEC program's specified size requirement. The operating temperature range of a TEG depends on the materials employed. For example, a bismuth-tellurium system is suitable for relatively low temperature operation (room temperature to 200 C), whereas silicon-germanium alloys work best for high-temperature applications (>800C). For moderate temperature (T = 500C to 800C) heat sources such as a vehicle's exhaust and industrial waste heat, half-Heusler types are the material of choice. The GMZ TEGs demonstrated continuous output power with no degradation in performance over the test period. To simulate vehicle performance, the unit was tested by connecting directly to the exhaust of a 15-liter V8 diesel engine inside an engine test cell. At approximately 80 liters (2.8 ft3), GMZ's TEG was less than one-third of the TARDEC program's specified size requirement. With this demonstration, GMZ successfully reached an important milestone in the $1.5 million vehicle-efficiency program sponsored by TARDEC and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). With battlefield fuel costs ranging from $40 to $800 per gallon, the U.S. military is especially interested in thermoelectric technologies, which are physically robust, have long service lives, and require no maintenance due to their solid-state design. GMZ's patented half-Heusler material is uniquely well suited for military applications. The 1000W TEG features enhanced mechanical integrity and high-temperature stability thanks to a patented nano-structuring approach. GMZ's TEG also enables silent generation, muffles engine noise, and reduces thermal structure. Half-Heusler is environmentally friendly and mechanically and thermally robust, although cost may be an eventual issue. The TARDEC TEG incorporates GMZ's TG8-1.0 modules, which are the first commercially available modules capable of delivering power densities greater than one Watt/cm while operating at 600C. Fig. 21-2 shows the power output of a TG8-1.0 module as a function of current and temperature. The TARDEC 1000W TEG consists of 400 TG8-1.0 modules with associated cold-side and hot-side heat exchangers and manifolds. GMZ did the engineering and CFD simulation to project performance. The technology's uniqueness is its ability to operate at high-temperature gradients (high T), which allows the extraction of more power per unit area of the TEG modules. 21-2. TG8-1.0 power output as a function of temperature and output current. The next phase of this program will be testing in a Bradley Fighting Vehicle. Besides saving money and adding silent-power functionality for the U.S. military, this TEG can increase fuel efficiency for most gasoline and diesel engines. This low-cost TEG technology fits into a broad array of commercial markets, including long-haul trucking, heavy equipment, and light automotive. Due to the high currents involved, GMZ usually employs series connections to maximize voltage and minimize current as much as possible as well as to minimize I2R losses. Because diesel exhaust is less than 600C and the module hot-side temperature is even lower than the flow temperature, the modules do not give their full power output the way they do in other applications. However, even with the derating to account for the lower hot-side temperature, the economics of incorporating these systems is very compelling with payback times typically less than 12 to 24 months. A high T capability can result in higher efficiency in some cases. However, what really matters is the $/Watt. When the input energy is free, the cost of the output energy is driven entirely by the cost of the generator. GMZ designed the system to minimize the $/W in order to maximize their utility to the largest possible set of prospective users. Because any thermoelectric material generates more power with higher T, GMZ focused on half-Heusler material systems, which have very high temperature capability. GMZ modules are rated for 600C continuous hot-side capability with 700C intermittent. This maximizes power per device, which minimizes the $/W. In volume production, GMZ expects its TEG systems to be below $1/W. GMZ Energy's proprietary platform technology enables low-cost manufacturing of bulk thermoelectric materials. The company's nano-structuring process reduces thermal conductivity while maintaining electrical conductivity, enhancing the performance (figure of merit, zT) by 30% to 60% across multiple classes of thermoelectric materials, including bismuth telluride, lead telluride, skutterudites, silicon germanium, and half-Heusler materials. Compared to thin-film and nanowire materials, GMZ's nano-structured bulk materials have superior mechanical integrity and high-temperature (20C-800C) thermal stability. GMZ's TEG materials and processes also allow direct bonding to interconnect without the need for metallization, which lowers costs and increases module durability and life cycle. This enables the module to provide consistent energy over long-term cycling, even in the most challenging environments. The 1000W TEG is composed of 400 TG8 modules with associated cold-side and hot-side heat exchangers and manifolds. GMZ did the engineering and CFD simulation to project the performance. GMZ's uniqueness is its ability to operate at high-temperature gradients (high T), which allows the extraction of more power unit area of its TE modules. The 1000W test unit included 400 modules. In general, GMZ tries to do series connections (maximize voltage and minimize current) as much as possible in order to minimize I2R losses due to the high currents involved. Because diesel exhaust is less than 600C and the module hot-side temperature is even lower than the flow temperature, the modules do not give their full power output the way they do in applications like self-powered boilers. However, even with the derating to account for the lower hot-side temperature, the economics of incorporating these systems is very compelling with payback times typically less than 12 to 24 months. High T capability of the TG8-1.0 can result in higher efficiency in some cases. However, what really matters is the $/Watt. When the input energy is free, the cost of the output energy is driven entirely by the cost of the generator. The system is designed to minimize the $/W in order to maximize the largest possible set of prospective users. Because any thermoelectric material generates more power with higher T, GMZ has focused on half-Heusler material systems that have very high temperature capability. Modules are rated for 600C continuous hot-side capability with 700C intermittent. This maximizes the power per device and minimizes $/W. In volume production, GMZ expects to sell its TEG systems at or below $1/W. In certain applications, thermoelectric modules (TEMs) are typically used to achieve the rapid temperature changes. The advantages of thermoelectric modules over other types of thermal cycling devices are precise temperature control, compactness, faster temperature ramp rates, and efficiency. The PC Series TEMs from Laird are proven to perform for more than 800,000 temperature cycles and can operate in temperatures up to 120C. This exceeds the requirements for certain applications and provides a lower total cost of ownership. These TEMs are constructed with multiple layers between the ceramic substrates, copper buss bars, and semiconductor couples (Fig. 21-3). To reduce thermally induced stress, a flexible and thermally conductive "soft layer" is inserted between the cold-side ceramic substrate and copper buss bars. The integration of the polymer into the thermoelectric modules absorbs the mechanically induced stresses caused by rapid temperature cycling. As a result, the stress induced on the semiconductor couples and solder joints is significantly reduced, extending the overall operational life of TEM. 21-3. Laird's PCS series of thermoelectric modules are intended for thermal cycling applications. Thermal cycling exposes TEMs to mechanical stresses as the module contracts and expands from repeated cooling and heating cycles. The high-temperature diffusion of impurities and mechanical stresses over time significantly reduces the operational life of a standard TEM. The PC Series is designed to handle hundreds of thousands of thermal cycles with minimal degradation.
High Performance Mini PC for Students
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High Performance Mini PC for Students
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